From Cincinnati to the Colorado Ranger: The Horsemanship of Ulysses S. Grant
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Ulysses S. Grant’s Jeff Davis
Sort order. Aoife rated it it was amazing Aug 26, There are no discussion topics on this book yet. About Denise M. While remaining Commanding General, Grant entered the campaign season with increased popularity among the Radical Republicans following his abandonment of Johnson over the Secretary of War dispute.
The Republicans chose Grant as their presidential candidate on the first ballot at the Republican National Convention in Chicago. Grant's General Order No.
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Historian Jonathan Sarna argues that Grant became one of the greatest friends of Jews in American history, meeting with them often and appointing them to high office. He was the first president to condemn atrocities against Jews in Europe, thus putting human rights on the American diplomatic agenda. Chandler and others. Their campaign focused mainly on ending Reconstruction and returning control of the South to the white planter class, which alienated many War Democrats in the North.
Grant, at the age of 46 was at the time the youngest president ever elected. His election was a triumph of conservative principles that included sound money, efficient government, and the restoration of Southern reconstructed states. Implementation of these new rights was slow to come; in the election, the black vote counted in only 16 of the 37 states, nearly all in the South. His presidency began with a break from tradition, as Johnson did not attend Grant's inauguration at the Capitol or ride with him as he departed the White House for the last time.
Sherman earned promotion to Commanding General , but his relationship with Grant became strained when the President took Rawlins's side to limit Sherman's authority.
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Grant initially ordered Sherman command over War Department bureau chiefs and their departments, but rescinded it when Rawlins and Congress complained. Belknap as his replacement, who continued to undermine Sherman's authority.
Grant selected several non-politicians to his cabinet, including Adolph E. Borie and Alexander Turney Stewart , with limited success. Borie served briefly as Secretary of the Navy, later replaced by George M. Robeson , while Stewart was prevented from becoming Secretary of the Treasury by a statute that barred businessmen from the position Senators Charles Sumner and Roscoe Conkling opposed amending the law.
Boutwell , a radical, as Treasury Secretary. His other cabinet appointments— Jacob D. Starting in , Grant's management of the Reconstruction of former Confederate states was controversial. Grant asked Congress to admit representatives from the remaining unrepresented Southern states in conformity with Congressional Reconstruction; they did so, passing legislation providing that Mississippi, Virginia, and Texas would be represented in Congress after they ratified the Fifteenth Amendment.
To bolster the new amendment, Grant relied on the army and in he signed legislation creating the Justice Department , primarily to enforce federal laws in the South. Where the attorney general had once been only a legal adviser to the president, he now led a cabinet department dedicated to enforcing federal law, including a solicitor general to argue on the government's behalf in court. Hoar , the administration was not especially aggressive in prosecuting white Southerners who terrorized their black neighbors, but Hoar's successor, Amos T. Akerman , was more zealous.
Alarmed by a rise in terror by the Ku Klux Klan and other groups against African Americans , Congress with Grant's encouragement passed a series of three laws, the Enforcement Acts from to , which made depriving African Americans their civil rights a federal offense and authorized the president to use the military to enforce the laws. That October, on Akerman's recommendation, Grant suspended habeas corpus in part of South Carolina and sent federal troops to enforce the law there.
After prosecutions by Akerman and his replacement, George Henry Williams , the Klan's power collapsed; by , elections in the South saw African Americans voting in record numbers. Lacking sufficient funding, the Justice Department stopped prosecutions of the Klan in June , and Grant offered the Klan clemency in exchange for peace. After the Klan's decline, other conservative whites formed armed groups, such as the Red Shirts and the White League who openly used violence and intimidation to take control of state governments. Cruikshank restricted federal enforcement of civil rights.
In , Grant by proclamation ended the Brooks—Baxter War bringing Reconstruction in Arkansas to a peaceful conclusion, but that same year, he sent troops and warships under Major General William H. By , Democratic " Redeemer " politicians took control of all but three Southern states. As violence against black Southerners escalated once more, Edwards Pierrepont Grant's fourth attorney general told Governor Adelbert Ames of Mississippi that the people were "tired of the autumnal outbreaks in the South", and declined to intervene directly, instead, sending an emissary to negotiate a peaceful election.
During his Presidency, Grant spoke out against voter intimidation against blacks in the South. Grant's attempts to live peacefully with Native Americans marked a radical reversal of what had since the s been the government's policy of Indian removal. He appointed Ely S. Wars of extermination The peace policy showed some success in reducing battles between Indians and whites on the western frontier, but the increased slaughter of the buffalo, encouraged by Grant's subordinates, led to conflict with the Plains Indians.
Howard, the former head of the Freedmen's Bureau, negotiated peace with the Apache in , convincing their leader, Cochise , to move the tribe to a new reservation, and ending a war started the year before. In Oregon, relations were less peaceful, as war with the Modocs erupted in April The Modocs refused to move to a reservation and killed the local army commander, Major General Edward Canby. Although Grant was upset over Canby's death, he ordered restraint, disregarding Sherman's advice to seek revenge or exterminate the tribe.
The army captured, tried, and executed the four Modoc warriors responsible for Canby's murder in October Grant ordered the rest of the Modoc tribe relocated to the Indian Territory.
Grant ordered Custer arrested for breach of military protocol and barred him from leading an upcoming campaign against the Sioux. Two months later, Grant castigated Custer in the press, saying "I regard Custer's massacre as a sacrifice of troops, brought on by Custer himself, that was wholly unnecessary — wholly unnecessary.
As early as , American expansionists desired U. Fabens, employed by the Dominican government, urged Fish to admit Santo Domingo as the Dominican Republic was then known as a state. Grant, who supported the treaties, believed in a peaceful expansion of the nation's borders, thought acquisition of the majority-black nation would allow new economic opportunities for African Americans in the United States while increasing American naval power in the Caribbean, and believed the island would offer a refuge for black Americans suffering from violent attacks in the South.
Grant and Fish were more successful in their resolution of the Alabama claims. Negotiations continued fitfully, a sticking point being the claims of "indirect damages" on top of the harm directly caused by the five ships. In October , a Spanish cruiser took captive a merchant ship, Virginius , flying the U. The passengers and crew, including eight American citizens, were illegally traveling to Cuba to help overthrow the government.
Spanish authorities executed the prisoners, and many Americans called for war with Spain. Fish, with Grant's support, worked to reach a peaceful resolution. Grant condemned slavery in Cuba, urging Spain to reform. Robeson commissioned the reconstruction of five redesigned double-turreted monitor warships to compete with the superior Spanish Navy. Soon after taking office, Grant took steps to return the nation's currency to a more secure footing. During the Civil War, Congress had authorized the Treasury to issue banknotes that, unlike the rest of the currency, were not backed by gold or silver.
The " greenback " notes, as they were known, were necessary to pay the unprecedented war debts, but they also caused inflation and forced gold-backed money out of circulation; Grant determined to return the national economy to pre-war monetary standards.
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Boutwell , backed by Grant, sold gold from the Treasury each month and bought back high-interest Treasury bonds issued during the war; this had the effect of reducing the deficit, but deflating the currency. These actions had a large impact on the gold market and the national economy. Gould convinced Corbin that a high gold price would be good for the nation's prosperity, and Corbin passed this theory on to Grant, who allowed the Treasury to act accordingly.
Despite his administration's many scandals, Grant continued to be personally popular.
Ulysses S. Grant’s Cincinnati
As the wartime coalition began to fray, Grant's alignment with the party's pro-Reconstruction elements alienated party leaders who favored an end to federal intervention in Southern racial issues. Many of that faction split from the party in , calling themselves the Liberal Republican Party. Led by Charles Francis Adams of Massachusetts and Senator Carl Schurz of Missouri, they publicly denounced the federal patronage system that Sumner, a Liberal Republican sympathizer, called " Grantism " and demanded amnesty for Confederate soldiers.
The Liberal Republicans were unable to deliver many votes, and Greeley was only successful in areas the Democrats would have carried without him. As his first term was ending, Grant continued to work for a strong dollar, signing into law the Coinage Act of , which effectively ended the legal basis for bimetallism the use of both silver and gold as money , and established the gold standard in practice. The result was deflation, with lower prices.
Silverites who wanted more money in circulation to raise prices farmers received denounced the move as the "Crime of ", claiming the deflation made mortgages more burdensome for farmers.